100 words summary

I need a summary of the article attached, approximately 100 words, also, I need your opinion of this article written by another student related to the same topic. Another 100 words

“This week’s article explains the way in which D’Alessio and Stolzenberg (1998) sought to conduct a reliable and all-encompassing study on the relationship between arrest certainty and criminal behavior. Prior to this study, there had been numerous other studies that supported the notion of a deterrence effect between criminal behavior and number of arrests made in a particular area. This means that there was an inverse relationship between the two variables; when arrests in a certain area increase, crime rates tend to decrease. This correlation ultimately gives evidence to the idea that a larger police presence and a bigger threat of punishment will cause individuals to fear the repercussions of crime and commit less of it. D’Alessio and Stolzenberg (1998) argued that, despite these studies being statistically correct, they forgot to account for a variety of other factors that could have possibly played a role in this correlation. In fact, some researchers in the past have even presented evidence to support the opposite causal effect where instead of arrests affecting the crime rate, crime rate affects the arrests that are made. A theory known as the overload effect suggests that when crime rates rise too high, law enforcement tends to feel overwhelmed and are unable to capture and commit as many offenders. 

   To begin their research, D’Alessio and Stolzenberg (1998) attempted to control for outside factors by defining three essential parts of their study. First, they tested for feedback effects which determines the accuracy of timing in criminological research. It is widely believed that crime rates affect police activity instantly while police activity affects crime rates at a much slower rate. By testing for feedback effects, the researchers can see how fast or slow data is traveled and how this affects the overall research. The second point outlined by D’Alessio and Stolzenberg (1998), and one of the most important points, is that they controlled for pretrial incarceration rates in addition to the regular arrest and crime rates.  What many previous researchers failed to account for was how the offenders being held in jail as they wait for trial impact the general crime rates in a specific area. The final point outlined for this research study was the unit of analysis being utilized. They chose to use a day as the unit of time as opposed to the standard month or year in order to obtain finer, more detailed results. 

   The results of this study, as collected by D’Alessio and Stolzenberg (1998), added more support for the deterrence theory. They found that, when controlling for pretrial detention levels, the number of daily arrests had delayed and negative effects on crime rates. Feedback data also shows that there is a split in lagged versus immediate effects. The researchers are still unsure of how this split affects the research entirely. Finally, pretrial incarceration was shown to not have any effect on crime levels. This statistic rejects the supposed incapacitation theory. Overall, the study produced a lot of interesting results despite only testing one county in the state of Florida. In the future, other studies should expand on this research by testing a multitude of counties and exploring more detailed temporal work such an hourly unit of analysis. 

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