There has been a noticeable transition in the energy sector, and the progressive move towards renewables is clearly noticeable. However, not anything that seems viable can remain so at the end of the life cycle. In photovoltaic panels (PV), this, at least, is the most common issue. The next challenge of the solar panel industry is to safely eliminate or recycle end-of-life components to end the energy cycle loop. Reuse or value-added recovery/reuse is superior to recycling in the waste management strategy. Around 2.5 million metric tones of solar panel waste were reported worldwide by the end of 2016 from the International Renewable Energy Organization (IRENA). By 2050, IRENA predicted it would exceed 75 million tones.
Glass, polymers, aluminum, copper, and small quantities of silver, tin, and other composites are the major weight contributor to the standard crystalline silicon-PV module. In most cases, PV waste gets disposed of in a landfill. This can cause major environmental emission concerns due to heavy metals in PV modules – for example, lead and tin. Besides, there are also precious metals such as silver and copper, which, if retrieved, pose a valuable incentive. Methods are built worldwide to recycle solar panels in order to reduce the environmental effects of end-of-life panels and regain some useful components/materials or something worthy out of the old PV modules. Current recycling techniques, however, are primarily focused on downcycling systems, which only recover a portion of materials and value, which encourages the need to do R&D in this field.
The Project will review different recycling techniques for solar PV panels. The brief review will include the current scenario of PV recycling in the world. Comparisons, along with the merits and demerits of various recycling schemes. We will also figure failure scenarios that continue with non-functional modules and their management activities—identifying contributing factors and faults which may help to detect the extent of the damage. What are the best-case scenarios that can be implemented depending upon the type of panels? Policy planning, including the duty of the producer to promote the recycling of solar waste panels. Also, the reasons behind the lack of incentives for recycling which is the obvious difficulty for the treatment of solar waste. Considering the Paris Agreement for climate change, how recycling of PV panels plays a vital role in eliminating the CO2 emissions will also be discussed.
Contribution by the Project Team:
We will propose better recycling mechanism for higher efficient solar panel recycling. Also suggest which changes should be made to the current policies of recycling to promote the same along with mathematical calculations based on assumption. And why same importance should be given to solar waste like battery waste/recycling.
Due to an average panel life of 25 years, solar photovoltaic waste worldwide will grow by around 5% – 15% from total production capacity in 2030 and can reach above 80%, if precautions are not taken to tackle that waste. This section will explain the solar photovoltaics cycle and adverse effect of solar waste in the world.
2)Different types of solar panels and materials used in its manufacturing
In this section various types of solar panels that are being used in the current applications is discussed. Also, it covers study of materials/semi conductor metals present in the solar PV panels.
3)Impacts of Large Scale PV installation across globe
With increasing dependency on renewable energy especially solar being the most developed one among other renewable energies, has large amount of waste at the end of its useful life cycle. Here, we will show the statics of solar PV modules productions and forecast waste generation
4)Waste produced by Solar PV modules
This section will provide information about different types of waste generated by solar modules and its hazardous effects in the society. Reasons for solar PV panels failure are also explained in this part.
5)Existing technologies for recycling solar PV Modules.
Current technologies that are used for solar PV modules recycling will be explained and compared along with its pros and cons. Recycling procedures for different types of solar modules is also discussed.
6)Recycling approaches across the globe
Various approaches that are taken into consideration for solar PV recycling along with its advantages and disadvantages and status in current scenario will be studied.
7)Crushing Techniques used for solar recycling.
Electro-hydraulic fragmentation technique will be explained in this section and its advantage over conventional methods of crushing.
8)Review of Policies and Guidelines for solar panel recycling
Which steps should be taken to increase the momentum of solar modules recycling by governments will be reviewed, in addition to that current policy structure for dealing with this waste will be covered in this part.
9)Environmental impacts of PV modules recycling
How the environment has been affected by recycling procedures? Different recycling techniques effects the environment in different ways, these effects are being studies and explained in the section.
10)Social and economic impacts of PV modules recycling
Useful metals that has been recovered through the recycling can be reused in different application and has some value as well. Moreover, huge amount of Co2 emission will be reduced because of solar PV recycling which proves to be major social advantage.
Based on all the facts and studies of sol;ar PV module recycling, we will provide our view on most pressing and advance technology associated with this issue.